Persons with capacity to alienate property may renounce prescription already obtained, but not the right to prescribe in the future. (160), Article 322. (n). The parents of the female seduced, abducted, raped, or abused, referred to in No. Marriage is not a mere contract but an inviolable social institution. Article 199. Unless there is a stipulation to the contrary, the partners shall contribute equal shares to the capital of the partnership. (335a). Article 764. (773a), Article 845. (112). Article 888. The claim for support, when proper and two or more persons are obliged to give it, shall be made in the following order: (2) From the descendants of the nearest degree; (3) From the ascendants, also of the nearest degree; Among descendants and ascendants the order in which they are called to the intestate succession of the person who has a right to claim support shall be observed. However, the vendor may still exercise the right to repurchase within thirty days from the time final judgment was rendered in a civil action on the basis that the contract was a true sale with right to repurchase. Proximity of relationship is determined by the number of generations. Nothing in this Title, however, shall affect: (1) The provisions of any factors' act, recording laws, or any other provision of law enabling the apparent owner of goods to dispose of them as if he were the true owner thereof; (2) The validity of any contract of sale under statutory power of sale or under the order of a court of competent jurisdiction; (3) Purchases made in a merchant's store, or in fairs, or markets, in accordance with the Code of Commerce and special laws. The partition of a thing owned in common shall not prejudice third persons, who shall retain the rights of mortgage, servitude or any other real rights belonging to them before the division was made. If the hidden defect of animals, even in case a professional inspection has been made, should be of such a nature that expert knowledge is not sufficient to discover it, the defect shall be considered as redhibitory. Article 1918. Upon the dissolution of the conjugal partnership, an inventory shall be formed, but such inventory shall not be necessary: (1) If, after the dissolution of the partnership, one of the spouses should have renounced its effects and consequences in due time; or, (2) When separation of property has preceded the dissolution of the partnership. The action for annulment of marriage must be commenced by the parties and within the periods as follows: (1) For causes mentioned in number 1 of article 85, by the party whose parent or guardian did not give his or her consent, within four years after attaining the age of twenty or eighteen years, as the case may be; or by the parent or guardian or person having legal charge, at any time before such party has arrived at the age of twenty or eighteen years; (2) For causes mentioned in number 2 of article 85, by the spouse who has been absent, during his or her lifetime; or by either spouse of the subsequent marriage during the lifetime of the other; (3) For causes mentioned in number 3 of article 85, by the sane spouse, who had no knowledge of the other's insanity; or by any relative or guardian of the party of unsound mind, at any time before the death of either party; (4) For causes mentioned in number 4, by the injured party, within four years after the discovery of the fraud; (5) For causes mentioned in number 5, by the injured party, within four years from the time the force or intimidation ceased; (6) For causes mentioned in number 6, by the injured party, within eight years after the marriage. (1962a). (1560a), Article 1665. (741), SUBSECTION 7. The Council for the Protection of Children shall look after the welfare of children in the municipality. With respect to movable property, the rescission of the sale shall of right take place in the interest of the vendor, if the vendee, upon the expiration of the period fixed for the delivery of the thing, should not have appeared to receive it, or, having appeared, he should not have tendered the price at the same time, unless a longer period has been stipulated for its payment. In the line, as many degrees are counted as there are generations or persons, excluding the progenitor. Trees uprooted and carried away by the current of the waters belong to the owner of the land upon which they may be cast, if the owners do not claim them within six months. (1841a), Article 2070. The following shall be entered in the civil register: (1) Births; (2) marriages; (3) deaths; (4) legal separations; (5) annulments of marriage; (6) judgments declaring marriages void from the beginning; (7) legitimations; (8) adoptions; (9) acknowledgments of natural children; (10) naturalization; (11) loss, or (12) recovery of citizenship; (13) civil interdiction; (14) judicial determination of filiation; (15) voluntary emancipation of a minor; and (16) changes of name. If the substitution is without the knowledge or against the will of the debtor, the new debtor's insolvency or non-fulfillment of the obligations shall not give rise to any liability on the part of the original debtor. A stipulation which excludes one or more partners from any share in the profits or losses is void. The partnership shall be responsible to every partner for the amounts he may have disbursed on behalf of the partnership and for the corresponding interest, from the time the expense are made; it shall also answer to each partner for the obligations he may have contracted in good faith in the interest of the partnership business, and for risks in consequence of its management. (915). A limited partner may receive from the partnership the share of the profits or the compensation by way of income stipulated for in the certificate; provided, that after such payment is made, whether from property of the partnership or that of a general partner, the partnership assets are in excess of all liabilities of the partnership except liabilities to limited partners on account of their contributions and to general partners. Article 309. (400a), Article 495. A will made in the Philippines by a citizen or subject of another country, which is executed in accordance with the law of the country of which he is a citizen or subject, and which might be proved and allowed by the law of his own country, shall have the same effect as if executed according to the laws of the Philippines. (4) The party defrauded must have acted in accordance with the misrepresentation. Article 994. The action to claim his legitimacy may be brought by the child during all his lifetime, and shall be transmitted to his heirs if he should die during his minority or in a state of insanity. (n), Article 9. (618a), Article 726. When by accident or other fortuitous event, movables separately pertaining to two or more persons are commingled or confused, the rules on co-ownership shall be applicable. (1890a). Article 2198. The following are incapable of succeeding: (1) The priest who heard the confession of the testator during his last illness, or the minister of the gospel who extended spiritual aid to him during the same period; (2) The relatives of such priest or minister of the gospel within the fourth degree, the church, order, chapter, community, organization, or institution to which such priest or minister may belong; (3) A guardian with respect to testamentary dispositions given by a ward in his favor before the final accounts of the guardianship have been approved, even if the testator should die after the approval thereof; nevertheless, any provision made by the ward in favor of the guardian when the latter is his ascendant, descendant, brother, sister, or spouse, shall be valid; (4) Any attesting witness to the execution of a will, the spouse, parents, or children, or any one claiming under such witness, spouse, parents, or children; (5) Any physician, surgeon, nurse, health officer or druggist who took care of the testator during his last illness; (6) Individuals, associations and corporations not permitted by law to inherit. (1517). If the donations are onerous, the amount of the charges shall be deducted from the paraphernal property or from the husband's capital, whenever they have been borne by the conjugal partnership. Article 2124. Article 305. (1469a), Article 1540. The vendor is bound to deliver the thing sold and its accessions and accessories in the condition in which they were upon the perfection of the contract. Article 1910. The remedies conferred by the first paragraph shall not be deemed exclusive of others which may exist. The creditor cannot use the thing pledged, without the authority of the owner, and if he should do so, or should misuse the thing in any other way, the owner may ask that it be judicially or extrajudicially deposited. He shall enter in said register the names of the applicants, the date on which the marriage license was issued, and such other data as may be necessary. The provisions governing warranty, contained in the Title on Sales, shall be applicable to the contract of lease. Article 691. (n), Article 1268. In the cases referred to in articles 1602 and 1604, the apparent vendor may ask for the reformation of the instrument. (1295), Article 1386. Pen names and stage names cannot be usurped. (11a), Article 66. Article 1755. If the debts due are of the same nature and burden, the payment shall be applied to all of them proportionately. (948), Article 1006. No trust shall fail because the trustee appointed declines the designation, unless the contrary should appear in the instrument constituting the trust. (n) ARTICLE 2120. (n), Article 807. This same rule shall be observed if he does it in contravention of the tenor of the obligation. Two or more persons may be substituted for one; and one person for two or more heirs. (n), Article 1994. (1507) ARTICLE 1602. (n), Article 732. In order that the State may take possession of the property mentioned in the preceding article, the pertinent provisions of the Rules of Court must be observed. The latter case shall be presumed when a team, yoke pair, or set is bought, even if a separate price has been fixed for each one of the animals composing the same. The builder, planter or sower in bad faith is entitled to reimbursement for the necessary expenses of preservation of the land. Title so acquired can be conveyed only in the partnership name. (1543a), ARTICLE 1644. Article 1753. (785a), Article 868. A thing under a pledge by operation of law may be sold only after demand of the amount for which the thing is retained. The marriage settlements and any modification thereof shall be governed by the Statute of Frauds, and executed before the celebration of the marriage. (1335a), Article 135. Article 843. (15a), Article 68. The repudiation of an inheritance shall be made in a public or authentic instrument, or by petition presented to the court having jurisdiction over the testamentary or intestate proceedings. (881a). Article 1516. (1692a), Article 1801. When the property delivered or money paid belongs to a third person, the payee shall comply with the provisions of article 1984. The condition that some event happen at a determinate time shall extinguish the obligation as soon as the time expires or if it has become indubitable that the event will not take place. In such case the contract is called a suretyship. The remedies against a public nuisance are: (1) A prosecution under the Penal Code or any local ordinance: or. A limited partner's interest is assignable. (987a), SECTION 2Capacity to Succeed by Will or by Intestacy. Whenever a piece of urban land which is so small and so situated that a major portion thereof cannot be used for any practical purpose within a reasonable time, having been bought merely for speculation, is about to be re-sold, the owner of any adjoining land has a right of pre-emption at a reasonable price. When the agreement is not illegal per se but is merely prohibited, and the prohibition by the law is designed for the protection of the plaintiff, he may, if public policy is thereby enhanced, recover what he has paid or delivered. (152a), Article 304. (n), Article 2189. (n). (1437), Article 194. A deposit is constituted from the moment a person receives a thing belonging to another, with the obligation of safely keeping it and of returning the same. The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation. If the will is contested, at least three of such witnesses shall be required. With respect to animals, it is sufficient that they are in the womb of the mother, although unborn. (1154a). No corporal punishment against the apprentice shall be permitted. Testamentary dispositions that impair or diminish the legitime of the compulsory heirs shall be reduced on petition of the same, insofar as they may be inofficious or excessive. (n), Article 2019. When negligence shows bad faith, the provisions of articles 1171 and 2201, paragraph 2, shall apply. In this case, the Rules of Court on the foreclosure of mortgages shall apply. Article 1848. If he left a will, he is also called the testator. Article 2035. The latter may redeem the property and compel a conveyance thereof to him. The principles of the general law on damages are hereby adopted insofar as they are not inconsistent with this Code. No proof of pecuniary loss is necessary in order that moral, nominal, temperate, liquidated or exemplary damages, may be adjudicated. (1492), Article 1574. If it has been constituted, and before the expiration of such period the town is abandoned, or the corporation or association is dissolved, the usufruct shall be extinguished by reason thereof. Article 366. (656), Article 774. In order that the price may be considered certain, it shall be sufficient that it be so with reference to another thing certain, or that the determination thereof be left to the judgment of a special person or persons. Actions and rights which came into being but were not exercised before the effectivity of this Code, shall remain in full force in conformity with the old legislation; but their exercise, duration and the procedure to enforce them shall be regulated by this Code and by the Rules of Court. Except so far as may be necessary to wind up partnership affairs or to complete transactions begun but not then finished, dissolution terminates all authority of any partner to act for the partnership: (a) When the dissolution is not by the act, insolvency or death of a partner; or. (6), Article 10. Should the vendee lose, by reason of the eviction, a part of the thing sold of such importance, in relation to the whole, that he would not have bought it without said part, he may demand the rescission of the contract; but with the obligation to return the thing without other encumbrances that those which it had when he acquired it. The common carrier's duty to observe extraordinary diligence over the goods remains in full force and effect even when they are temporarily unloaded or stored in transit, unless the shipper or owner has made use of the right of stoppage in transitu. In case of money or fungible goods, if the share of each heir is not earmarked, there shall be a right of accretion. If the terms of a contract are clear and leave no doubt upon the intention of the contracting parties, the literal meaning of its stipulations shall control. Should they exceed the portion that can be freely disposed of, they shall be reduced in the manner prescribed by this Code. The following cannot give consent to a contract: (2) Insane or demented persons, and deaf-mutes who do not know how to write. A person who for value negotiates or transfers a document of title by indorsement or delivery, including one who assigns for value a claim secured by a document of title unless a contrary intention appears, warrants: (2) That he has a legal right to negotiate or transfer it; (3) That he has knowledge of no fact which would impair the validity or worth of the document; and, (4) That he has a right to transfer the title to the goods and that the goods are merchantable or fit for a particular purpose, whenever such warranties would have been implied if the contract of the parties had been to transfer without a document of title the goods represented thereby. (n), Article 1515. (n), Article 1155. In default thereof, he shall do all that a good father of a family would do, as required by the nature of the business. In default of a special stipulation, the custom of the place shall be observed with regard to the kind of repairs on urban property for which the lessor shall be liable. Article 1566. The provisions of this Code concerning the effect of partition stated in articles 498 to 501 shall be applicable. (888a). The employment of pen names or stage names is permitted, provided it is done in good faith and there is no injury to third persons. Should the lessor refuse to reimburse said amount, the lessee may remove the improvements, even though the principal thing may suffer damage thereby. (350a). (1449a), Article 1474. Civil Law Reviewer Vol 1 2020 Edition All other actions whose periods are not fixed in this Code or in other laws must be brought within five years from the time the right of action accrues. The expenses of consignation, when properly made, shall be charged against the creditor. By Rules of court pledge by operation of law prescribed in article 438 of this article shall! Stated by law accept a part of the principal obligation own acts co-owners who represent the controlling interest shall taken! 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