2010 eyjafjallajökull eruption morbidity rate

This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The volcanic events starting in March 2010 were considered to be a single eruption divided into phases. Deep earthquakes were detected near the crust mantle-boundary … It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. However, the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano had particularly damaging impacts to the economy and worldwide aviation. But the month is still needed, Consequences of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. During the initial flank eruption and the main summit eruption that followed, the rate of recorded earthquakes decreased significantly but remained high enough that the main eruption could be predicted and warnings issued. Eyjafjallajökull 2010. THE STUDENT ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL.XXVIII 129 EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL AND THE 2010 CLOSURE OF EUROPEAN AIRSPACE: CRISIS MANAGEMENT, E CONOMIC IMPACT, AND TACKLING FUTURE RISKS ELIN THORA ELLERTSDOTTIR Senior Sophister The 2010 eruptions at Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland struck fear into the hearts of air - line executives and news presenters alike. The participation rate was 72%. Eruptions. The London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC),[15] part of the UK Met Office, was responsible for forecasting the presence of volcanic ash in the north-east Atlantic. By way of comparison, the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 was rated as 5 on the VEI, and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was rated as a 6. In addition to volcanic ash being very hazardous to aircraft,[56] the location of this eruption directly under the jet stream ensured that the ash was carried into the heavily used airspace over northern and central Europe. (First eruption on 20 March 2010). The volcano's explosive power was enough to inject ash directly into the jet stream. Eyjafjallajökull had shown similar signs of stirring in 1994 and 1999. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. All ash dispersion models for this geographic region were produced by the VAAC in London. Eruptionen 2010. Visual observations were greatly restricted due to cloud cover over the volcano, but an aeroplane of the Icelandic Coast Guard imaged eruptive craters with radar instruments. Ausbruch des Eyjafjallajökull, 13. Material (tephra) in the ice cauldrons around the volcanic vents: 30 million cubic metres (39,000,000 cu yd), Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, carried by floods down the outlet, Airborne tephra that was carried to the east and south of the volcano, uncompacted tephra fallout from eruption plume: 100 million cubic metres (130,000,000 cu yd), This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 14:40. Online ISSN: 1399-3003, Copyright © 2020 by the European Respiratory Society. Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. There was a 40 mm inflation of the volcano. This was 10–20 times the average discharge rate in the preceding flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls. Earthquakes and Eruptions in Iceland 2010 from hjalli on Vimeo. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. Some Clips & Images of the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Music Credits: Dreaming in 432Hz Unicorn Heads Youtube Audio Library. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Eruptive activity during 4–8 May 2010 was characterized based on short‐duration physical [citation needed], A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490 ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature around 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) up to 150 m (490 ft) into the air. In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. MAIN FINDINGS 3.1 First indications of magma movements under Eyjafjallajökull were detected as early as 1992-1994, with increased seismicity followed by episodes of unrest with ground inflation and earthquakes in 1996 and 1999-2000. 1999 ; Sigmundsson et al. 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was well‐monitored by the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) using multiple geo-physical and geological data streams [Gudmundsson et al., 2010; Sigmundsson et al., 2010]. A short time-lapse from 17 April 2010. [8] Previous eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruptions at its larger neighbour, Katla. [7], Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced [ˈɛɪjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl] (listen)) is one of Iceland's smaller ice caps located in the far south of the island. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig. A series of vents along a 2-km-long north–south-oriented fissure was active, with meltwater flowing mostly down the northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. Sarychev Peak 2009. [18] However, during the night of 22 March, they reported some volcanic ash fall reaching the Fljótshlíð area (20 to 25 km (12 to 16 mi) north-west of the eruption's location)[19] and Hvolsvöllur town (40 kilometres (25 mi) north-west of the eruption location)[19] leaving vehicles with a fine, grey layer of volcanic ash. The Icelandic flag carrier airline, Icelandair, seemed at first especially vulnerable, but managed to deal effectively with the eruption and subsequently published a detailed report about its actions and conclusions. Sitemap . By the morning of 24 May 2010, the view from the web camera installed on Þórólfsfell[57] showed only a plume of water vapour surrounded by a bluish haze caused by emission of sulphurous gases. The second phase was estimated to be a VEI 4 eruption, which was large, but not nearly the most powerful eruption possible by volcanic standards. [72] The effect also spread beyond Iceland. As to why just the month, it's the way that … *** PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR EARLIER UPDATES *** May 24. [3] By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. : TEPHRA SIZE AND MASS FLOW RATE DURING THE 2010 EYJAFJALLAJöKULL ERUPTION 5645 ash grain sizes larger than 100 microns can be detected by C … Chaitén 2008. [3] This eruption lasted eight days, from 7 – 15 June of that year, with an ash cloud that would have required additional days to dissipate,[78] and resulted in worldwide abnormal weather and decrease in global temperature over the next few years. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. No unusual seismic activity was detected at the time the new fissure appeared, nor any crustal expansion according to many seismometers and GPS recorders situated in nearby areas. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). Fluoride poisoning can start in sheep at a diet with fluorine content of 25 ppm. [74][75] One previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821 is recorded as having lasted for over two years, but no single set of major eruptions is known to have lasted more than 'several days'. Situated to the north of Skógar and to the west of the larger ice cap Mýrdalsjökull, Eyjafjallajökull covers the caldera of a volcano 1,666 m (5,466 ft) high, which has erupted relatively frequently since the last ice age. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. The study reported increased activity that occurred between June and August 2009 (200 events), compared to a total of about 250 earthquakes recorded between September 2006 and August 2009. Questions: a) When did the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull begin and how long did the eruption last? PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. However, the second phase of Eyjafjallajökull's eruption lasted longer than that of Mount Pinatubo. Eruption Characteristics [4] The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption lasted 39 days and erupted 0.27 0.08 km3 tephra (uncompacted volume) in four distinct phases [Gudmundsson et al., 2010]. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Due to the distance from the radar to the eruption site as well as orographic blockage the radar cannot detect a volcanic plume, or clouds, below 2.9 km Image courtesy of James Ashworth. There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. After that, many further vapour explosions occurred. Background : The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 posed an opportunity to study health effects of a volcanic eruption in a society with strong infrastructure. We do not capture any email address. The participation rate was ... GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Cold water from melted ice quickly chilled the lava, causing it to fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. Hence, there is much speculation that the 2010 eruption may also be followed shortly by activity at Katla. Beginnend mit dem 20. About 20 countries closed their airspace to commercial jet traffic and it affected approximately 10 million travellers. Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among those living closest to the volcano. Appendices 3. [56][66] Many flights within, to, and from Europe were cancelled following 14 April 2010 eruption, and although no commercial aircraft were damaged, the engines of some military aircraft were harmed. [4] Seismic data showed that the frequency and intensity of earth tremors still exceeded the levels observed before the eruption, therefore scientists at the Icelandic Meteorological Office[5] (IMO) and the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland[6] (IES) continued to monitor the volcano. Eyjafjallajökull had shown similar signs of stirring in 1994 and 1999. Results: Demographic characteristics and underlying disease rates were similar in the two groups. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Redoubt 2009. IVATF/4-IP/3-2-report on the eruption from the institutes in Iceland that did monitoring and research on the eruption. [67][68] The presence and location of the plume depends upon the state of the eruption and the winds. Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: ... respiratory morbidity and mortality and increased irri- ... longer time periods to volcanic ash and gases have been associated with increases in cardiovascular symptoms8 and increased rates of chronic bronchitis and other respira- The nature of the volcanic hazard – type, frequency, magnitude It quickly dispersed over Europe. The erupting lava cooled very fast, which created a cloud of highly abrasive, glass-rich ash. Deformation was occurring at rates up to a centimetre a day since 4 March at various GPS sites installed within 12 km (7.5 mi) from the eruptive site. However, on March 20, 2010, the lava began to flow and there were several series of small eruptions which ejected volcanic ash into the atmosphere. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The participation rate … The second phase resulted in an estimated 250 million cubic metres (330,000,000 cu yd) (0.25 km3) of ejected tephra and an ash plume that rose to a height around 9 km (5.6 mi), which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the volcanic explosivity index. An earthquake swarm began under Eyjafjallajokull volcano in January 2010. [26], The grounding of European flights avoided about 3.44×108 kg of CO2 emissions per day, while the volcano emitted about 1.5×108 kg of CO2 per day.[27]. The magma discharge rate was about 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) or 750 t/s. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was seen at the north slopes of Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass,[38][39] lighting up the sky above the eruptive site. The Institute of Earth Sciences[60] made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in March and April 2010 posed significant challenges for the people of Iceland as well as millions of people across Europe whose airplanes were grounded due to the high concentrations of volcanic ash. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). Analysis, discussion and main findings 6. 2.5.2010. The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. These institutes are the IMO, the Institute of Earth Sciences of the University of Iceland and the Department of Civil Protection Data were collected at 2 time points: in 2010 and 2013. Conclusion: Exposure to volcanic ash may increase respiratory morbidity symptoms six months post eruption, but long-term consequences are still unknown. [16] At the end of December 2009, seismic activity began around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano area, with thousands of small earthquakes (mostly of magnitude 1–2 Mw), 7 to 10 km (4.3 to 6.2 mi) beneath the volcano. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. Neither phase of the eruption was unusually powerful. In October 2010, Ármann Höskuldsson, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences, stated that the eruption was officially over, although the area was still geothermally active and might erupt again. [44] Crustal expansion continued at Þorvaldseyri for two days after the eruption began, but was slowly decreasing whilst the volcanic activity was increasing. Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations. On 14 April 2010 the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (63.63°N, 19.62°W, 1666 m asl) on Iceland started to send a vast ash plume into the troposphere. Consequently, a very high proportion of flights within, to, and from Europe were cancelled, creating the highest level of air travel disruption since the Second World War. 2.1. High-fluoride Hekla eruptions pose a threat to foraging livestock, especially sheep. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. The view of the eruption from Þórólfsfel also includes a thermal imaging camera. Instead, the police closed the road to Þórsmörk and the four-wheel-drive trail from Skógar village to the Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, but these roads and trails were reopened on 29 March, though only for suitable four-wheel drive vehicles. By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater. This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. The shutdown had a knock on impact on the economy and cultural events across Europe. This, together with the magnitude of the eruption (estimated to be VEI 4)[3] and being 10 to 20 times larger than the eruption of Fimmvörðuháls on 20 March, injected a glass-rich ash plume into the jet stream. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. It further indicated that the locations of most of the earthquakes in 2009 occurred between 8 to 12 km (5.0 to 7.5 mi) depth east of the volcano's top crater. A new phase of the eruption began at approximately 01:00 UTC on 14 April, Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. [33][34][35], On 22 March, a flow meter device in the Krossá glacial river (which drains Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull glaciers) in the Þórsmörk area (a few kilometres north-west of the erupting location) started to record a sudden rise in water level and water temperature – the total water temperature rose by 6 °C (11 °F) over a two-hour period, which had never happened so quickly in the Krossá river since measurements began. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). The recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and the largest ash plume associated with the second eruption phase were not unparalleled in either volume or abundance; however, the location was the critical factor because it affected air travel across Europe. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. [12], This volcanic activity so disruptive to air travel because of a combination of factors:[citation needed]. Explosive activity from this new crater was observed with emission of small quantities of ash. From 14–20 April, ash from the volcanic eruption covered large areas of Northern Europe. 2. The eruption, rather than taking place under the ice cap of the glacier, occurred in the mountain pass between the Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull glaciers. The erupted products were fragmented material, the majority fine-grained airborne tephra. [46] Many witnesses were present while the new fissure opened. [65], Volcanic ash is a major hazard to aircraft. This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. Sigmundsson et al. While tourism demand has increased by 12 percent per year on average over the past 10 years, the relatively slower pace of construction meant that supply took longer to adapt and only showed a growth rate of about five percent per year . [47][48], Geophysicist Magnús Tumi Einarsson said (at a press meeting in Hvolsvöllur on 21 March) that this eruption was small compared to, for example, the eruption of Hekla in 2000. Leaky Caldron 09:44, 18 April 2010 (UTC) Consequences sounds good. [64] In Scotland, the number of phone calls to health services for respiratory and eye irritation did not rise significantly. The people who lived near the volcano had high levels of irritation symptoms, though their lung function was not lower than expected. [17], The radar stations of the Meteorological Institute of Iceland did not detect any appreciable amount of volcanic ashfall during the first 24 hours of the eruption. The first eruption phase ejected olivine basaltic andesite lava[11] several hundred metres into the air in what is known as an effusive eruption. The crater was inactive during the last 187 years. Immediately before the eruption, the depth of the seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. IES also noted that the eruption continue with less explosive activity. Agriculture is important in this region of Iceland,[51] and farmers near the volcano have been warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources,[52] as high concentrations of fluoride can have deadly renal and hepatic effects, particularly in sheep. Participants Adult (18–80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. The effects of the eruption were recorded in various places in Europe up to the present day. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Between mid-2000 and 2009, earthquakes occurred intermittently at rates of 1–4 events per month, while deformation remained negligible (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The eruption continued through at least March 26th, and may continue for several more months. This was the highest plume since the eruption started. Setting In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible. respiratory morbidity compared with 2010, ... Table 3 Risk of respiratory symptoms in 2013 in a popula tion exposed to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, by e xposure level. Photos of the 2010 eruptions by Fred Kamphues, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimised for headphones), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2010_eruptions_of_Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=990444873, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, large-scale disruption to air travel, smaller effects on farming in Iceland. This indicates that the rate at which magma was flowing into the magma chamber roughly equaled the rate at which it was being lost due to the eruption, giving evidence that this phase of volcanic activity reached equilibrium. [70] When rocks and other ejecta collide with one another, they create static electricity. The data was analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, education and smoking status. A study by the Icelandic Meteorological Office published on December 2009 indicated an increase in seismic activity around the Eyjafjallajökull area during the years 2006–2009. 2010 ). [9] On 20 April 2010 Icelandic President Ólafur Grímsson said, "the time for Katla to erupt is coming close ... we [Iceland] have prepared ... it is high time for European governments and airline authorities all over the world to start planning for the eventual Katla eruption."[10]. [63] Six months later, the population living in the area had more respiratory symptoms than a control group from North Iceland, with no ashfall. "Volcano tourism" quickly sprang up in the wake of the eruption, with local tour companies offering day trips to see the volcano. The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on European Respiratory Society . 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. The resulting meltwater flowed back into the erupting volcano, which created two specific phenomena: The rapidly vaporising water significantly increased the eruption's explosive power. d) Which area of the island was worst affected by the Lava flow? Analyzing the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption using satellite remote sensing, lidar and WRF-Chem dispersion and tracking model P. W. Webley,1,2 T. Steensen,1,2 M. Stuefer,1 G. Grell,3 S. Freitas,4 and M. Pavolonis5 Received 1 September 2011; revised 23 May 2012; … At 250 ppm, death can occur within a few days. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). [49], After a short hiatus in eruptive activity, and a large increase in seismic activity 23:00 on 13 April and 1:00 on 14 April, a new set of craters opened early in the morning of 14 April 2010 under the volcano's ice-covered central summit caldera. The last historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823 . In 2010 2000-3000 metres cubed per second of flood water. Weil keine Vergleichswerte existierten, wurde der Flugverkehr über Nord- und Mitteleuropa in weiten Teilen und für mehrere Tage eingestellt. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). [61], The IES updated the eruption flow rate on 21 April 2010 to an estimation less than 30 cubic metres per second (1,100 cu ft/s) of magma, or 75 tonnes/s, with a large uncertainty. Near real-time volcanic cloud data. Ash ejection from this phase of the eruption was small, rising to no more than 4 km (2.5 mi) into the atmosphere. Second eruptive phase happened under 200 m ( 660 ft ) of glacial.! Can occur within a few days 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and 1821! Endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations start in sheep at a diet with fluorine of. 2010 were considered to be sheltered indoors post eruption, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption with... New crater was observed in the form of fire fountains and located to the had! And the winds cap around 07:00 on 14 April and an eruption plume rose to more than 5 weeks spring... Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement IAVCEI... 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